When people start to grow more intimate with wine and its productions, they can surely say that there are lots of processes and phases so the wine can get on everybody’s wine cellar. For this to happen, the winegrowers have to follow hard tasks to the grape reach its best stages of fermentation and some other specific characteristics needed to a wine be as good as it can be.
The complete grape maturation comprehends the following periods:
Herbaceous: involves since the seed formation until the grape’s color change. This period varies according to the cultivation and the climatic conditions of the harvest.
Color change: in the tainted grapes, the berry color varies from green to blued-purple and, in the white ones, from green to yellowish-green. The color change comes along with physical changes; the berry acquires elasticity and softens at the same time maturation advances.
Maturation: it starts with the color change of the grape and ends up in the harvest. It can take 30 to 70 days, depending on the cultivation and its region. During maturation, the berry softens progressively, due to the loss of hardness of the pellicle cell walls and of the pulp; then an increasing in the pigment amount occurs and in the sugar (glucose and fructose), just like an accentuated decreasing in the acidity.
The technologic maturation is the maturation point that there is no accumulation of sugar in the grape berry and not even acidity decrease. The physiologic maturation is all about the physiologic and morphologic transformations that happen to the grape, since the maturation advances. The “fenolic” maturation expresses the quantitative and qualitative evolution of the berry poliphenols.
Over maturation: It starts from the technologic maturation. The sugar and acid floating, on this phase are the result of some phenomenal of dilution ( ) and that happens due to some rainy and/or dry periods, respectively. On the other hand, the shell amount of polyphenol continues to grow, in this phase. In regions where summer and autumn are dry, the grapes can get a little bit drier, too.